Accumulating evidence demonstrates that school is a significant source of anxiety among youth with chronic pain and that anxiety contributes to schoolrelated functional impairment in this. The pass20 is the short form version of the pain anxiety symptoms scale, a selfreport measure of painrelated. They must be borne in mind not only in adults but in children too. Anxiety disorders can range from a generalized anxiety disorder gad, which is intense worrying that you cant control, to panic disorder sudden episodes of fear, along with heart. Pain is one of the commonest symptoms for which patients seek medical attention. Validity was supported by significant correlations with measures of anxiety.
Chest pain caused by anxiety or a panic attack typically lasts around 10 minutes, but the other symptoms can last for up to an hour. Fear of pain has been implicated in the development and maintenance of chronic pain behavior. Having a blood sample drawn with a hypodermic needle, 0. Anxiety and related factors in chronic pain a short version of the pain anxiety symptoms scale pass20. Preliminary development and validity research has shown significant.
Mcgrath14 1 centre for pediatric pain research, iwk health centre. Efforts to validate the scale, however, have been confined mostly to examining associations between the pass and other selfreport instruments. Development and preliminary validation of the child pain. Study 1 drawing on previous research on catastrophizing and pain, we constructed a selfreport scale that incorporated the nonre524. Pain anxiety refers to the cognitive, emotional, physiological, and behavioural reactions to the experience or anticipation of pain. Association between chronic low back pain, anxiety and depression in patients at a tertiary care centre 689 patients with metabolic bone diseasedisorders were excluded from the study. Results showed a significant positive correlation between anxiety and pain. The pain anxiety symptoms scale fails to discriminate pain. They were designed for clinical and research purposes and mostly for use with adults with recurrent or chronic pain conditions. The pass20 assesses cognitive, physiological and behavioral aspects of painrelated anxiety, such as cognitive anxiety, fear, physiological anxiety and escapeavoidance. This study investigated the factor structure and psychometric properties of the pain anxiety symptoms scale pass. The patients were assessed using the ha scale of the temperament and character inventory tci of cloninger and pain anxiety symptoms scale 20 pass20. The impact of anxiety on chronic musculoskeletal pain and.
Departments of 2 psychology, 3 pediatrics, 4 psychiatry, dalhousie university. For chronic pain, more specific measures of anxietyrelated to cognitive and behavioural variables have been designed. Pain cognition versus pain intensity in patients with endometriosis. Completely disagree disagree disagree somewhat neutral agree somewhat agree completely. Objectives significant costs of chronic pain pain catastrophizing. People with generalized anxiety sometimes describe themselves as worry warts and often are told that they worry too much. One hundred chronic pain patients in a multidisciplinary pain clinic participated in the study. Our goal is to have staff and families work together to. Psychometric properties of a korean version of the pain. Assessment of emotional functioning in pain treatment.
A total of 140 consecutive chronic low back pain patients were enrolled from the out door patient department opd and the neurosurgery. Validations and psychological properties of a simplified chinese. Development and preliminary validation of the child pain anxiety symptoms scale in a community sample m. Describe how cognitive behavioral treatment within a pain. Means and standard deviations for the revised, shortened pain anxiety symptoms scale subscales and the total score n282 patients with chronic pain subscale mean sd cognitive items 1 to 5 12. A pilot study of the faces anxiety scale for measuring anxiety fear in children undergoing painful medical procedures c. The symptoms of anxiety induced back pain will include persistent aches or stiffness. A functional measurement approach to the childrens. Request pdf a short version of the pain anxiety symptoms scale pass20.
The pain anxiety symptoms scale pass has been developed to evaluate. Psychometric evaluation of the pain anxiety symptoms scale. Current understanding of assessment, management, and treatments national pharmaceutical council, inc this monograph was developed by npc as part of a collaborative project with jcaho. A short version of the pain anxiety symptoms scale pass20. The influence of pain catastrophizing and painrelated anxiety on. The 12month prevalence of anxiety disorders among all us adults is listed in table 1. Please rate each item in terms of frequency, from 0 never to 5 always. Validations and psychological properties of a simplified chi.
Promis pediatric and parent proxy profile instruments are a collection of short forms containing a fixed number of items from six promis domains depressive symptoms, anxiety, physical functionmobility, pain interference, fatigue, and peer relationships along with a single item on pain intensity. Participants in samples one and two completed a dutch version of the pass, while participants in sample three completed an english version of the pass. People suffering from depression, for example, tend to experience more severe and longlasting pain than other people. Preliminary development and validity lance m mccracken phd1, lara dhingra ba2 1pain management unit, royal national hospital for rheumatic disease and university of bath, united kingdom. Consistent with conceptualizations of anxiety as occurring within three response modes, this paper introduces an instrument to measure fear of pain across cognitive, overt behavioral, and physiological domains. Like the original inven tory, the pass20 measures fear and anxiety responses specific to pain. Coxc adepartment of psychology, pz430 psychealth centre, university of manitoba, 771 bannatyne avenue, winnipeg, man. Many studies have found associations between pass scores and self. Pain is the most distressing and incapacitating symptom experienced by cancer patients. They may also experience symptoms of tension, including restlessness, tiring easily, difficulty concentrating, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep difficulties, and inability to relax. Pdf reliability and validity of the child pain anxiety.
We believe children and adolescents have a right to the best level of pain relief that can be safely provided. Anxiety causes back pain because being anxious activates your stress response, and the stress response causes your muscles to. Generalized anxiety disorder 7item gad7 scale over the last 2 weeks, how often have you been bothered by the following problems. The pain anxiety symptoms scale pass was administered to 104 consecutive referrals to a multidisciplinary pain clinic. Background the pain anxiety symptoms scale pass20 consists of 20 items designed to assess four aspects of painrelated anxiety. Anxiety is highly prevalent in pediatric chronic pain. Separately, knee pain and anxiety scores were also measured twice over 12 months in 4730 individuals recruited from the general population. In order to recover from an agoraphobia and panic disorder, only two things need to be learned you can never really be trapped in a restaurant, waiting on line, in church, or even in an elevator. Effectively and efficiently measuring fear and anxiety associated with pain in healthcare settings. A short version of the pain anxiety symptoms scale pass. Only 10% had no medically explained symptoms explained vs. Therefore, we take a team approach to pain and anxiety management, using drug and nondrug therapies. Pain in children and adolescents childrens minnesota.
Pain and impairment relationship scale please respond by checking the response that most closely describes the way you feel about each of the following statements. The pain anxiety symptoms scale pass has been developed to. The pain anxiety symptoms scale fails to discriminate pain or anxiety in a chronic disabling occupational musculoskeletal disorder population. The painanxiety depression connection everyone experiences pain at some point, but for those with depression or anxiety, pain can become particularly intense and hard to treat. Anxious responses to pain may lead to avoidance of behavior expected to produce pain. Pain anxiety symptoms scale pass and short version pass. Hads was developed specifically to avoid reliance on confounding factors that are present in depression and anxiety, but also occur as symptoms of illness or treatment side effects. A short version of the pain anxiety symptoms scale downloads. For example, the bath adolescent pain questionnaire bapq eccleston et. These are more useful than general anxiety measurements and give more. This comorbidity has been explained by the presence of shared mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of chronic pain and anxiety. Development and preliminary validation of the child pain anxiety. Investigating the relationship between anxiety and pain.
Although the pass20 is a wellestablished measure of painrelated anxiety in western samples, different cultures may yield a different factor structure or different associa. School anxiety in children and adolescents with chronic pain. Acsap 2017 book 2 neurologicpsychiatric care 7 generalized anxiety disorder introduction overview of anxiety disorders anxiety disorders are common among patients in primary care and share a common thread. A preclinical investigation of a model of oa pain in normo anxiety spraguedawley sd and high anxiety wistar kyoto wky rats. Data was collected using pain anxiety symptoms scale pass20 short version and pain catastrophizing scale pcs. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anxiety, and shivering are common symptoms of opioid withdrawal. I can still be expected to fulfill my work and family responsibilities, despite my pain. The pain anxiety symptoms scale pass was developed to measure fear and anxiety responses to pain. Confirmatory factor analyses provided support for both the onefactor and the fourfactor structures reported for samples of clinicreferred pain patients. The hama was one of the first rating scales developed to measure the severity of anxiety symptoms, and is still widely used today in both clinical and research settings. Such an instrument is the pain anxiety symptoms scale pass which measures behavioural responses to pain. Worry, avoidant behavior or behavioral adaptations, and autonomic and other somatic complaints are also common.
Depression and anxiety symptoms are important to consider not only in primary healthcare settings and pain clinics but also in hospital and palliative care settings. A fourth measure, the fear of pain questionnaire iii. Measures participants in all three samples completed the pain anxiety symptoms scale mccracken et al. Data was analyzed using ttest and pearson correlation coefficient. The painanxietydepression connection harvard health. The fear of pain inventory measures degree of fear in hypothetical pain inducing situations 14.
The child pain anxiety symptoms scale cpass has recently been developed and validated in a pediatric community. Child characteristics, such as age and gender, were recorded from the medical file. A quick and effective measure of anxiety and depression in acute pain. The pass assesses four components of pain related anxiety. While mindfulnessbased stress reduction mbsr interventions have been conducted with cancer patients, no. Association between chronic low back pain, anxiety and. The scale consists of 14 items, each defined by a series of symptoms, and measures both psychic anxiety mental agitation and psychological distress and somatic anxiety.246 1460 485 1042 1099 599 1089 1271 772 578 65 1062 646 140 137 604 14 233 432 1449 1330 594 816 1064 126 1287 1071 87 174 828 1055 343 1234 328 607 804 1023 518 511 452