Pdf traveling wave fault location in power transmission systems. It presents the derivation and the solution to wave equations, lattice diagram and the event that occurs at the junction of two or more lines. Section 2 the approximate nature of the transmission line equations t. Long wire and traveling wave antennas 1 the power gain and directive characteristics of the harmonic wires which are long in terms of wavelength described in chapter 2 make them useful for longdistance transmission and reception on the higher frequencies. Travelling wave on transmission line is the voltage current waves which propagate from the source end to the load end during the transient condition. It covers the topic travelling wave analysis from power systems. Pdf travelling wave based fault location analysis for. It transmits the wave of voltage and current from one end to another. Secondorder differential equation complex propagation constant attenuation constant neperm phase constant transmission line equation first order coupled equations. We then go on to introduce the important physical example of light waves.
Behaviour of travelling wave at a transition point. Pdf transmission line protection based on travelling. Transmission line parameters obtained from text module 2. Such a travelling wave movie may not only be useful for its educational value in classroom teaching of related subjects. Derivation of wave equations combining the two equations leads to. Exact solutions of travelling wave model via dynamical system method wang, heng, chen, longwei, and liu, hongjiang, abstract and applied analysis, 2016. Unit iv traveling waves on transmission line sri vidya college of. Traveling waves amplitudes over a discrete set of frequencies. Resistance along the line r inductance along the line l all.
Different from fault locators using impedance methods, the location methods using traveling waves can achieve much higher accuracy regardless of fault type and line characteristics. Transmission line protection and fault location based on travelling wave measurement. Time variation of the travelling waves along the line can be observed by calculating this pro. It is the best video to know how to prepare power systems for gate exam wherein we have. Identification of lightning stroke and fault in the. This thesis investigates the problem of fault localization using traveling wave current signals obtained at a singleend of a transmission line andor at multiends of a transmission network. The study of travelling waves helps in knowing the. Travelling waves are the current and voltage waves which travel from the sending end of a transmission line to the other end when the switch is closed at the transmission lines starting end, voltage will not appear instantaneously at the other end. Travelling wave based dc line fault location in vsc hvdc. Fault location methods for transmission lines are broadly classified as impedance based method which uses the steady state fundamental components of voltage and current values,, traveling wave tw based method which uses incident and reflected tws observed at the measuring ends of the line, and knowledge based method which uses.
Pdf transmission line protection based on travelling waves. Paper has made an attempt to obtain travelling waves components in the form of forward wave and backward. Before going to electrical transmission line think of a swimming pool. This deals with the discussion on traveling waves on transmission lines during transient conditions. At the point when transmission line fault happens, there is a change in both voltage and current. The transmission line is represented as a distributed parameter model so that travelling wave effects will be apparent. A busbar capacitance has to be included in the model in order to represent the highfrequency properties better. The envelope has a positive and a negative side, but we generally only talk about the positive half because that. Transmission lines, fault location, traveling waves, impedance fault locators. Traveling waves on electric power systems project euclid. Introduction travelling wave protection or transient component based protection is capable of achieving ultra high speed fault detection, and hence it has been focused by electrical engineers all over the world for tens of. Travelling wave based fault location is the common fault location method applied in hvdc transmission lines. In 1 and in 5 is proposed a very simple method for fault location in a transmission line based on the transient fault location in transmission line based on the transient detection through the applying of. Travelling wave is a temporary wave that creates a disturbance and moves along the transmission line at a constant speed.
Transmission line protection based on travelling waves. The curve that shows the amplitude of the traveling wave at each point along the basilar membrane is called its envelope. Hvdc transmission lines and cables need repairs quickly as possible after a fault. Traveling waves theory the disturbance of the transmission line at any point is appears as a change in steady state power equation and propagate travelling wave in both directions of line terminals. As known, voltage source converterbased highvoltage direct current vschvdc transmission system is widely utilised in actual power grid. Detecting and recording the traveling wave in this unit from two ends of a simulated transmission line produces the plot shown in fig. The single ended travelling wave strategy is utilized to recognise the wave when it achieves both ends of the transmission line.
Such type of wave occurs for a short duration for a few microseconds but cause a much disturbance in the line. This is caused by the transient behavior of inductor and capacitors that are present in the transmission line. Waves can exist traveling independently in either direction on a linear transmission line. Ultrahighspeed travelling wave protection of transmission line using polarity comparison principle based on empirical mode decomposition dongwang, 1,2 houleigao, 1,2 sibeiluo, 1,2 andguibinzou 1,2.
In this chapter, we show how the same physics that leads to standing wave oscillations also gives rise to waves that move in space as well as time. The transient wave is set up in the transmission line mainly due to switching, faults and lightning. A travelling wave on a transmission line is a transient disturbance that that moves along the line at a constant speed yet maintains its shape see figure 1. A transmission line is a twoport network connecting. As the waves travel along the line their wave shapes and magnitudes are also modified. The transmission line is made up of a conductor having a uniform crosssection along the line. Transmission lines signal transmission and reflection. These waves travel along the line with the velocity equal to velocity of light if line losses are neglected. Generally, as primary protection principle, travelling wave tw protection is adopted based on the technologies of abb and. The travelingwave photodetector twpd is a distributed structure in that optical and photogenerated electrical signals copropagate along the device length. The travelling wave fault locators twfl currently available on the market rely on.
Igbt based voltage source converter vsc hvdc systems are. Traveling wave fault location in protective relays. Ulaby, eric michielssen, and umberto ravaioli, fundamentals of applied electromagnetics c 2010 prentice hall exercise 2. Hon tat hui transmission lines basic theories nusece ee2011 1 transmission lines basic theories 1 introduction at high frequencies, the wavelength is much smaller than. The power transmission line is the most frequently. Definition of traveling waves on transmission lines. What is reflection and refraction of travelling waves. Even for this, the simplest travelling wave representation of a power system transmission line. Likewise, since the transmission line wave equation is a linear. Fault location in transmission line using travelling wave. Transmission lines a transmission line is used for the transmission of electrical power from generating substation to the various distribution units. The travelling wave analysis consists of finding solutions of the telegraphers equations, bearing in mind the characteristics of the transmission lines, the equipment to which they will be connected and the nature of the signals likely to be experienced in power system transient situations. What is meant by travelling waves in transmission power lines.
The analysis of travelling waves on power system transmission lines. The problems of traveling waves on the transmission lines of a power system1 differ considerably from those of traveling waves on telephone or telegraph. A transmission line has distributed impedance parameters. Abstractfaults in power transmission lines cause transients that travel at a speed close to. The transmission line is a twoport circuit used to connect a generator or transmitter signal to a receiving load over a distance. Traveling wavebased fault location on halfwavelength. Transmission line protection using travelling waves generated at the time of fault are used as trip signals of a travelling wave relay. Travelling wave based fault location analysis for transmission lines article pdf available in the european physical journal conferences 33. Write voltage and current wave equation of a transmission line.
Two methods for travelling wave visualization in multi. In this paper, the performance of a twoterminal traveling wavebased fault location approach applied to a transmission line little longer than halfwavelength is. Note that the coordinate used is l, which is distance from the end of the line. Then the line shown in the circuit on the left in fig. Sendingend port a a b b transmission line generator circuit load circuit.
In an actual implementation of the traveling wave system in a relay, a sampling frequency of just over 1. Examples include lightning surges, switching transients, faults, etc. Transmission line, travelling wave based protection, lightning stroke, characteristic of waveform, criterion 1. The electrical contacts are designed as a transmission line with its characteristic impedance matched to.
A combined impedance and traveling wave based fault. Let the series impedance per unit length be z and the parallel admittance per unit length be y. You are disturbing the swimming pool, which is full, by jumping into it in one side of the pool or throwing something into it. Existence of traveling wave solutions in a stage structured cooperative system on higherdimensional lattices li, kun, rocky mountain journal of mathematics, 2019.440 512 280 421 698 864 1092 1112 920 1454 1418 1031 433 437 26 350 615 445 737 1439 385 887 723 1175 1033 1357 533 862 1335 61 1317 302 1158 1323 232 222 1069 405 571 1439 116 573 238